Category Archives: Oversight

Who’s overseeing the overseers?

The government provides oversight over projects and programs. Interestingly, this oversight often happens outside of the normal reporting structure of the government agencies. It is considered important for these overseers to be independent – not part of the organization that is sponsoring or administering the project. While this allows for some objectivity, it also means that the overseers have little “skin in the game” – they do not have to live with the consequences of their decisions. The team running the program does.

Now suppose – this is theoretical, of course, and would never happen in any situation I am familiar with, ahem – suppose that the oversight body imposed substantial burdens on the programs it oversaw. Suppose that it demanded extensive documentation that no one ever read, nit-picked on the format of the documentation, imposed supposed “best practices” that were not actually best practices, and frequently asked for data or status updates that distracted those managing the program. Suppose further that the overseers themselves were not always efficient; held up the programs while they tried to schedule review meetings, gave the programs contradictory direction, and argued amongst themselves or prepared inadequately for review meetings. The problem could be exacerbated if the overseers did not themselves have the experience of running programs, and therefore their understanding of best practices was at best theoretical, at worst superstitious.

If that – ahem – ever happened, then given the power oversight bodies have, they would essentially be ordering the programs to waste money. They might also add risk to programs. Since the job of the oversight body is ostensibly the opposite – to prevent waste and mismanagement – this could be a critical issue. What controls are in place to prevent this? Is the oversight body perhaps incentivized to make “corrections” to the programs to demonstrate its own usefulness?

Because the oversight bodies are not “inline” with the management structure over the program, they have no obligation to cultivate the program team as employees. They do not need to encourage program staff, deal with any issues of demoralization, provide positive feedback, make a comfortable work environment that will attract more great performers into program management. Oversight in such an environment runs the danger of focusing on negativity and control, rather than on successful execution.

How can we improve this? Oversight bodies must be measured by the success of the programs they oversee, not by their willingness to cancel failing programs. They must be composed of people who are experts – not in overseeing programs, but in executing them. They must work to optimize their processes and to minimize the waste they add to programs, and must solicit feedback from programs to understand what waste they are causing. What I am saying is that oversight must create value for programs, and only the programs can judge whether they do.

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Cancel Successful Projects, Not Failing Ones

Government oversight bodies take great pride in canceling failing projects. They consider it a measure of success. What are oversight bodies for? Eliminating wasteful investments, of course. At first glance this might seem to be consistent with an agile mindset. Among the advantages of an agile approach are the transparency given to stakeholders and the ability to manage risk by working in increments. Only the current increment is at risk, since the project can be stopped before the next increment begins. Problems are exposed through transparency and oversight can take advantage of the incremental approach to stop a failing project.

This way of thinking is a mistake. The project was started because of a mission need. Canceling the project leaves that mission need unmet. Oversight has failed in two senses: (1) it failed to make the project successful, and (2) it did not allow a mission need to be met, one that was important enough to have invested in. If, in fact, the mission need is important, then a new project will have to be started to address that same need. The new project will have the overhead of starting up a new program, thereby wasting more money. Instead of canceling the program, the oversight body should shift the course of the current program to make it more successful.

But isn’t that throwing more money into a wasteful program? No – what has been spent so far is a sunk cost, and there may be some salvageable assets. Doesn’t the program’s failure to date mean that it is poorly managed? Not necessarily, but if it is, the oversight body should simply force the program management to change, not cancel the program. In many cases the problem is not management, but circumstances outside their control. The oversight body should help the program overcome those outside forces. Terminating the program is just a way to punish the program’s management, and adds waste for the government as a whole.

Why cancel a successful program? If a program has delivered substantial value to date, then the oversight body should consider whether the remaining work of the program is necessary. If the program’s work was appropriately prioritized, then there should be diminishing returns to continuing the program. Oversight should constantly reassess the value of the remaining work, and see if the agency’s needs have changed in a way that the remaining work is no longer worth the investment. If the oversight body decides that this is the case, it should cancel the remainder of the program and rejoice – for this it can legitimately claim an oversight success!